Трудовите права в Холандия (за работници мигранти)

Трудовите права в Холандия (за работници мигранти)

публикувано: зимата на 2014

Като трудещи се, ние сме уязвими, когато не сме запознати с правата си. Това особено важи за чуждестранните работници в Холандия, от които твърде често се възползват работодателите. Причината донякъде може да е заради факта, че има много малко информация за правата на трудещите в Холандия на език различен от холандския. С информацията поместена в тази брошура, се надяваме да ви помогнем да се предпазите, както срещу експлоатацията на труд като цяло, така и срещу работодатели, които искат да ви прецакат. Също така искаме да насърчим солидарността между всички работници в тази борба. Ако намирате за полезна информацията поместена в тази брошура и можете да я преведете на друг език, моля, отделете време, за да го направите. За целта проверете нашия уебсайт, за да разберете на кои езици все още липсва превод. След това ни изпратете вашия превод, за да го поместим на уебсайта ни. (Но моля, не очаквайте от нас да го разпространим сред вашите колеги!) Разбира се, изброените права по-долу представят само минималните изисквания. Ако искате повече права, ще трябва да се борим за тях!

Работно време и почивки

1) Работната смяна не може да е повече от 12 часа. Работната седмица не може да има повече от 60 работни часа. Ако сте изработили 60 часа през една седмица, следва да бъдете възнаградетни допълнително, защото не е позволено да работите повече от 55 часа средно на седмица. След 16 седмици, тези часове стават 48 часа средно на седмица.

2) Когато сте работили 5 часа и половина наведнъж, по закон трябва да си вземете 30 минутна почивка. Когато работите повече от 10 часа на ден, тази почивка е 45 минути. Тя може да се вземе на 3 пъти по 15 минути през 10-те часа работа. Почивката (30 или 45 минутна) не се заплаща от работодателя.

Здраве и безопасност

3) Работодателят е задължен да се грижи за здравето и безопасността на работниците. Това означава да предоставя безопасна работна среда, безопасни инструменти за работа и работни превозни средства, но също така и съответни инструкции или обучение за боравене с тези инструменти и превозни средства. Освен това, работодателят трябва да осигури съответните предпазни мерки, когато се работи (евентуално) с опасни вещества.

4) Когато сте болен и не можете да работите, в повечето случаи имате право на болнични (заплащане по болест). Това заплащане варира в зависимост от вида договор, който сте сключили. В договора например може да пише, че нямате право на заплащане първите два дни, като тези дни се наричат “wachtdagen” (чакащи дни). За първия 1 месец обаче, заплащането по болест е приблизително равна на заплатата, която получавате, когато сте на работа, освен ако няма някакво друго споразумение в договора ви. Ако сте болен повече от 1 месец, имате право на 70% от заплатата ви. За съжаление, ситуацията е по-сложна, ако работите на повикване или договора ви не включва минимален брой работни часове (договор с нула часове). Тогава, в повечето случаи имате право на заплащане по болест само ако сте били повикани на работа на деня (дните), когато сте били болен.

5) Отпуска по болест: Ако се разболеете, работодателя ви няма право да ви пита каква е причината. Вие можете да му кажете ако искате, но той няма право да ви принуди да му кажете.

6) Бременност и отпуска по майчинство: По закон вие сте длъжна да кажете на работодателя си, че сте бременна най-малко 3 седмици преди началото на отпуската по майчинство. В случай, че сте подписали трудов договор преди това, не сте длъжна да съобщавате, че сте бременна. Ако това се окаже проблем по някакъв начин, знайте, че не могат да ви уволнят поради факта, че сте бременна.

Опуската по майчинство може да започне 4 до 6 седмици преди термина и да продължи поне до 10 седмици след датата на раждане. Общият период на отпуската по майчинство е около 16 седмици.

Заплащане

7) За работещи във възраст между 23 и 67 години, минималното заплащане по закон е €8,63 брутно на час. Това е €69,01 за 8 часов работен ден, €345,05 за 40 часа на седмица и €1.495,20 брутно на месец. Ако не ви се заплаща на час, а получавате твърда месечна заплата, би трябвало да получавате поне това минимално заплащане на месец.

Договори

8) Като общо правило: когато договорката за работа е направена устно, тя има същата сила като писмен договор. Разбира се, много по-трудно е да се докажат детайлите по договорката, когато няма физическо доказателство. Затова: винаги изисквайте копие от договора на хартия, по имейл или дори като съобщение по телефона!

9) Когато работодателят ви иска да ви уволни, той трябва да го направи в писмен вид. Ако не е в писмен вид, трудовия договор продължава да тече и работодателя ви е длъжен да ви плаща трудово възнаграждение. Незабавно уволнение е разрешено само ако сте на изпитателен срок. Той от своя страна не може да е по-дълъг от 2 месеца и трябва да е съгласуван в писмен вид. Ако работният договор е за по-малко от 1 година, изпитателния срок е 1 месец. Извън изпитателния срок, незабавно уволнение може да се употреби само в изключителни случаи като: кражба, умишлена повреда на нещо, проява на насилие и даване на невярна информация при подписването на трудовия договор. При такива случаи, следва да бъдете уведомени писмено веднага след събитието (на същия или на следващия ден), като причината за уволнението да е ясно посочена.

10) Хора без разрешение за пребиваване (verblijfsvergunning) по закон имат право на заплащане след като са работили, както и на същите условия за здраве и безопасност докато са на работа.

Скандалният договор ‘нула часове’.

11) В Холандия могат да се сключват трудови договори с вписани нула часове за работа. Това е удобно и лесно за работодателите, защото чрез тях не гарантират работа за работника и не плащат изработени часове. Вместо това му се обаждат само когато те сметнат, че имат нужда него. За съжаление, обикновено това не означава, че работника може да откаже повикването, под претекст че е зает. В повечето договори ‘нула часове’ вие сте длъжен да се явите на работа, когато ви се обади работодателя. Когато искате да напуснете работа, обикновено трябва да дадете едномесечно предизвестие. Това не означава, че не можете да опитате да напуснете веднага. Проверете обаче дали това е законосъобразно, за да знаете със сигурност какъв риск поемате.

12) Има и друго, по-важно правило:

Когато работник изработи повече часове от посочените в договора и това се случи за срок от 3 последователни месеца, то договора автоматично се променя според новите часове. Това означава, че ако човек, който е на договор ‘нула часове’ работи средно по 24 часа на седмица в рамките на 3 месеца и работодателя му решава да съкрати часовете му на 8 часа, то работника има право по закон да настоява за още 16 часа работа и съответното заплащане. Това също важи и в случай, че работника се разболее и не може да ходи на работа. Работодателят е длъжен да плаща болнични, като те са най-малко на база часовете посочени в договора, но ако е влязло в сила правилото за 3-те последователни месеца, това става на база на усреднената стойност на часовете през тези 3 месеца.

Няколко съвета за работниците мигранти в Холандия

1) Поддържайте си своя администрация! Правете копия на документите, които предоставяте на работа, пазете си разписките при получаване на заплата (онлайн или на хартия), следете си сами работните часове. Пазете всичката информация, която получавате от работодателя си на хартия или мейл. Също така си записвайте адресите и имената на фирмите, за които работите. Това е особено полезно, ако работата ви изисква да бъдете изпращани на различни места при различни фирми чрез временни агенции за работа.

2) Опитайте да направите контакти с колегите си на работа от първия ден. Разменете си телефонните номера например. Обменяйте информация за проблемите на работа. Бъдете солидарни един към друг. В случай на конфликт, заедно ще бъдете по-силни, отколкото сами.

3) Никога не давайте документи, особено паспорт, лична карта и разрешение за работа на никого. Това са най-ценните лични вещи, когато става въпрос за работа и в чужди ръце могат да се използват да ви се окаже натиск да вършите неща, които не искате.

4) Никога не подписвайте документи, които не разбирате напълно. Поискайте копие на език, който разбирате и преценете дали искате съвет (правен) преди да подпишете.

5) Никога не плащайте, за да работите или да си намерите работа. Ако някой ви предложи работа по някаква неясна схема, която ви изглежда подозрителна и ви иска пари, най-вероятно действа незаконно. Твърде вероятно е да се окажете в ситуация, където да не ви платят накрая или неправомерно да ви удържат пари за неща като транспорт, квартира, глоби или лошо поведение.

6) Уверете се, че след като договора ви изтече ще си получите цялото заплащане, включително и платената отпуска. Платената отпуска би трябвало да е около 8% от брутната ви месечна заплата. Също така и неизползваните дни от отпуската трябва да бъдат изплатени след края на договора ви.

7) Работата ви може да бъде регулирана според колективен трудов договор (на холандски: CAO, Collectieve ArbeidsOvereenkomst). Ако работата ви минава през агенция за работа, то холандската агенция за САО се отнася за вас. Най-новите версии на САО можете да намерите тук: http://www.abu.nl/publicaties/cao

8) Повечето работници имат право на помощи за грижи от правителството (zorgtoeslag). Това е месечна сума, която може да ви спести до половината от таксата за здравна осигуровка. Можете да кандидатствате за такива помощи от тук: http://www.toeslagen.nl.

9) Изисквайте си данъчна декларация всяка година (или част от годината), в която сте работили в Холандия. Уверете се, че ще вземете годишната данъчна декларация от работодателя ви – ще ви е нужна. Данъчните форми можете да намерите тук:

http://www.belastingdienst.nl/english/ http://www.belastingdienst.nl/deutsch/

10) Можете да поискате BSN (холандско ЕГН) без да имате постоянен адрес, ако сте член ан Европейския съюз. Ще ви дадат временен BSN номер и ще имате 4 месеца, за да се регистрирате. Ако обаче не се регистрирате в рамките на тези 4 месца, временния BSN изтича и става невалиден. Ако се регистриате, този BSN става постоянен. BSN може да се получи в общината.

Този текст е публикуван през септември 2014 година. В настоящия момент дадената информация от него може да не е актуална. Така че сверявайте информацията с по-нови източници, за да сте винаги сигурни.

Повече информация можете да намерите на този сайт: http://www.labourrights.vrijebond.org

В случай, че търсите подкрепа от колеги работници, можете да се обърнете към нас:

Anarchistische Groep Amsterdam – Vrije Bond

aga@agamsterdam.org

http://agamsterdam.org

postbus 16521

1001 RA Amsterdam

Или да се отбиете в нашата библиотека всяка събота от 14:00ч до 16:00ч

Eerste Schinkelstraat 14-16, Amsterdam

Има много групи и хора, които са замесени в Vrije Bond в Холандия и в голяма част от Белгия. Вижте сайта за контакти:

http://www.vrijebond.org/groepen/

или пишете до администратора, за да ви даде контакти на хора във вашия район.

secretariaat@vrijebond.nl

Arbeidsrecht in Nederland

Datum van publicatie: Winter 2014


Als werknemers zijn we kwetsbaar wanneer we niet goed bekend zijn met onze rechten. Zeker van buitenlandse werknemers in Nederland wordt maar al te vaak misbruik gemaakt. Dit kan liggen aan de moeilijk beschikbare informatie over het Nederlandse arbeidsrecht in talen anders dan het Nederlands. Met dit pamflet hopen we daar verandering in te brengen en solidariteit tussen werknemers aan te moedigen, zodat we ons beter kunnen weren tegen werkgevers die ons proberen uit te buiten. Aarzel daarom niet deze informatie te verspreiden onder je collega’s.

Op onze site staan vele vertalingen van dit pamflet. Als je er jouw vertaling aan toe wilt voegen, stuur die dan naar ons op.

De hier genoemde rechten zijn alleen onze basisrechten. Als we meer willen bereiken zullen we ervoor moeten vechten!

Werktijden en pauzes

1) Een dienst mag niet langer duren dan 12 uur. Een werkweek mag niet langer duren dan 60 uur. Als je een werkweek draait van 60 uur moet dit gecompenseerd worden. De werkweek mag namelijk niet meer bedragen dan gemiddeld 55 uur over 4 weken en 48 uur over 16 weken.

2) Na 5 ½ uur aaneengesloten arbeid moet je wettelijk een halfuur pauze krijgen (en nemen). Bij een werkdag van meer dan 10 uur wordt dit 45 minuten. Dit mag drie keer een kwartier zijn gedurende die tien uur. Deze pauze, van een halfuur of drie kwartier, hoeft de werkgever niet te vergoeden.

Veiligheid en gezondheid

3) De werkgever is verplicht toe te zien op de veiligheid en gezondheid van werknemers. Ze moeten zorgen voor een veilige werkomgeving, voor veilig gereedschap en materieel, voor duidelijke instructies over hun bediening en voor gepaste voorzorgsmaatregelen bij het werken met (mogelijk) gevaarlijke stoffen.

4) Wanneer je fysiek niet instaat bent jouw werk te doen, heb je recht op betaald ziekteverlof. De hoogte hiervan hangt af van je contract. Let erop dat vaak contractueel is vastgelegd dat de eerste twee dagen ziekteverzuim niet worden uitbetaald (zogeheten wachtdagen).

5) Bij ziekte heeft de baas of werkgever niet het recht de werknemer te vragen wat er mankeert. Het staat je vrij hen dit te vertellen, maar ze mogen je er niet toe dwingen.

Salaris

6) Voor werknemers tussen de 23 en 67 jaar bedraagt het wettelijk minimumloon bij een achturige werkdag en een 40-urige werkweek € 8,63 bruto per uur, € 69,01 per dag, € 345,05 per week en € 1.495,20 per maand. Werk je niet in loondienst maar tegen stukloon, dan behoor je bij een ‘gangbaar’ werktempo ten minste dit minimumloon te verdienen.

Contract

7) In principe is een mondelinge arbeidsovereenkomst even rechtsgeldig als een schriftelijke overeenkomst. Maar het is natuurlijk moeilijk na te gaan wat er afgesproken is zonder schriftelijk bewijs. Vraag dus altijd naar een afschrift van de overeenkomst op papier of per e-mail of sms-bericht! Overigens is werkgever verplicht jou schriftelijk o.a. te laten weten: waar, vanaf wanneer, tot wanneer, voor hoe veel uur gemiddeld per week, voor wie, in welke functie en tegen welk loon je gaat werken.

8) Bij ontslag moet de werkgever schriftelijk laten weten waarom je ontslagen wordt. Doet hij of zij dat niet, dan blijft het contract van kracht en moet de werkgever je blijven doorbetalen. Ontslag op staande voet is alleen toegestaan tijdens een proefperiode of bij dwingende reden.

9) Mensen zonder verblijfsvergunning hebben wettelijk recht op betaling na verrichte arbeid en op gepaste veiligheids- en gezondheidsvoorzieningen op het werk. (Maar: werkgevers mogen geen mensen zonder verblijfsvergunning aannemen!)

Het beruchte nul-urencontract

10) In Nederland bestaat een nul-urencontract. Dit betekent dat je moet komen opdraven wanneer de werkgever dat wil (maar voor minimaal 3 uur!). Als je wilt stoppen met je werk, heb je bovendien een maand opzegtermijn. Dat wil niet zeggen dat je niet kunt proberen per direct ontslag te nemen, maar zoek wel uit wat je rechten zijn, zodat je weet wat de eventuele gevolgen kunnen zijn.


11) Maar er geldt nog een andere en belangrijke bepaling:

Wanneer een werknemer drie maanden achtereen gemiddeld meer uren werkt dan contractueel is vastgelegd, wordt het contract stilzwijgend en automatisch gewijzigd naar dat nieuwe gemiddelde aantal uren.

Enkele suggesties voor (buitenlandse) werknemers in Nederland:

1) Houd je eigen administratie bij! Bewaar je loonstrookjes, houd een rooster bij van je gewerkte uren, en bewaar alles wat je van je baas of werkgever schriftelijk of per e-mail ontvangt. Houd ook de namen en adressen bij van alle bedrijven en werkgevers voor wie je hebt gewerkt en plaatsen waar je hebt gewekt.

2) Draag nooit paspoort, werkvergunning of andere belangrijke papieren af aan derden. Dit zijn belangrijke persoonlijke bezittingen, die in handen van derden kunnen worden gebruikt om je onder druk te zetten en om je dingen tegen je wil te laten doen.

3) Zet nooit je handtekening onder een document dat je niet volledig begrijpt. Vraag om een afschrift in een taal die je beheerst, en bepaal dan eerst of je nader (juridisch) advies wilt inwinnen.

4) Leg bij een nieuwe baan of klus direct contact met je collega’s. Wissel bijvoorbeeld telefoonnummers uit. Probeer elkaar op de hoogte te houden van wat er speelt op het werk. Bouw een gevoel van solidariteit op. Bij conflicten sta je samen sterker dan alleen.

5) Let erop dat je na afloop van je contractduur eventuele achterstallige inkomsten ontvangt, inclusief vakantiegeld (circa 8% van je bruto maandloon) en ongebruikte vakantiedagen.

6) Waarschijnlijk valt je werk onder een CAO (collectieve arbeidsovereenkomst). Voor uitzendwerk geldt de CAO voor Uitzendkrachten. Recente versies hiervan vind je in het Engels, Pools en Nederlands op http://www.abu.nl/publicaties/

7) De meeste werknemers hebben recht op zorgtoeslag van de overheid. Deze maandelijkse toeslag kan je de helft van je verzekeringspremie schelen. Meld je aan via http://www.toeslagen.nl.

8) Let erop dat je je jaaropgave ontvangt van al je werkgevers, zodat je belastingaangifte kunt doen voor eventuele belastingteruggave. Belastingformulieren vind je op http://www.belastingdienst.nl/ (of in het Engels: http://www.belastingdienst.nl/wps/wcm/connect/bldcontenten/belastingdienst/individuals/ , in het Duits: http://www.belastingdienst.deutsch/ ).

Dit pamflet dateert van september 2014. Tegen de tijd dat je dit leest, kan sommige informatie alweer verouderd zijn. Raadpleeg altijd recente bronnen.

Meer informatie is ook te vinden op onze site https://labourrights.vrijebond.org

Als je op zoek bent naar wederzijdse steun van andere werkers, kun je contact opnemen met:

Anarchistische Groep Amsterdam — Vrije Bond
http://aga@agamsterdam.org
http://agamsterdam.org
Postbus 16521
1001 RA Amsterdam

Of kom op bezoek in onze bibliotheek, elke zaterdag van 2 tot 6 uur ‘s middags:


Eerste Schinkelstraat 14-16, Amsterdam.

De Vrije Bond telt vele betrokken groepen en individuen in Nederland en grote delen van België. Kijk op de website voor contactgegevens: http://www.vrijebond.org/groepen/

Of schrijf het secretariaat om contact te leggen met leden in jouw omgeving: secretariaat@vrijebond.nl .

Labour rights in the netherlands

Labour rights in the Netherlands

Labour rights in the Netherlands (for migrant workers)

Prologue

As workers, we are vulnerable when we are unfamiliar with our rights. Especially foreign workers in the Netherlands all too often get taken advantage of. This may be due to a lack of available information on basic workers’ rights in the Netherlands in languages other than Dutch. With this pamphlet we hope to change that and to encourage solidarity between workers, so we can defend ourselves against employers looking to exploit us. Please share its content with your fellow workers. Of course the rights listed below are only our basic rights. We’ll have to fight for it if we want more!

On our site you can find this pamphlet in many translations, if you have a translation to add, please send it to us.

Published in 2014. Last modification April 2020

Index

  • Contracts
  • + Basic information
  • + Zero hours contracts
  • + Contract termination
  • + + Compensation
  • + + Notification period
  • + + Unemployment protection
  • Schedule
  • + Working times
  • + Breaks
  • + Extra hours
  • Health & safety
  • + Basic information
  • + Health insurance
  • + Mobbing & Abuse
  • + Background checks
  • Leaves
  • + Unpaid leaves
  • + Childbirth leaves
  • + Vakantiegeld (holiday leave)
  • + Sick leave
  • Economics
  • + Payments
  • + Taxes
  • + Minimum salary
  • Organize & fight back
  • + How to get help
  • + Tips for the working dynamics
  • Reporting

Information

Contracts

Basic information

In principle a verbal labour agreement has the same validity as a written contract. However it is hard to prove the details of the agreement when there is no physical evidence. Always get a copy of the agreement on paper, by e-mail or text message!

People without residence permit (verblijfsvergunning) are lawfully entitled to their wages after having worked and to regular health and safety protection while at work. (A boss however, is not allowed to hire people without a residence permit.) In other words, everybody who is working in the Netherlands falls under dutch labor law, even if your employer/contract says differently.

Never sign any documents without fully understanding their meaning. Ask a copy in a language you understand and decide whether you want (legal) advice on it.

In case of lacking a copy of your contract, ask for it via email. If you don’t get a contract, write your own contract, including everything you have agreed with your employer, then send this contract to your employer and ask them to give you a signed copy. It doesn’t have to be complicated or perfect. If they still refuse to give you a signed contract, the contract you wrote is legally valid. Tell this to your employer. If your employer then doesn’t stick to this contract, go to a lawyer and sue your employer.

Useful links:

  • https://www.fnv.nl/werk-inkomen/contract/arbeidscontract

Zero hours contracts

In the Netherlands contracts can be made for zero hours. Unfortunately with most zero-hour contracts your are obliged to come to work when the boss calls you to do so. When you want to quit you have to give a month’s notice. This doesn’t mean you can not try to leave immediately. Just check whether or not you are doing this legally, so you know what risk you are taking.

There is also another, very important regulation: When an employee works more than his/her contracted hours for three consecutive months, the contract changes to that new average of hours!

Contract termination

When a boss wants to fire you he/she has to state the reason in writing. When not in writing, the contract continues and the boss is still obliged to pay you your wages. Immediate dismissal is only allowed during a probation time.

Compensation

When quitting a there’s no compensation. However you should always get your holiday allowance (around 8% of your gross salary) paid. Quitting your job of getting fired does not make a difference when it comes to getting this amount of money paid. Double check your contract and/or collective labour agreement, there might be extra provisions.

Notification period

Your contract should have a clause for notification period. When there is no clause to that regard, by law there is no minimum which means that in that situation you can quit anytime. This means that you can quit on spot but the consequences are that you won’t be allowed social benefits or transition fee and in case of having it, you’ll loose your 30% ruling.

You should take into account, that when the notification period is one month or more, it’s most probably a full calendar month. This means that no matter which day of the month you inform the company that you are quitting, you would have to still work at least the whole next month. In either case, your contract should be explicit about this being one calendar month or 30 days. If your contract is temporary, but you keep doing your regular job after the expiration date, the contract is renewed for the same amount of time it was for. After three years your temporary contract is by law changed into a permanent contract.

Useful links:

  • https://www.cnv.nl/werk-en-inkomen/contract/einde-van-mijn-arbeidsovereenkomst-voor-bepaalde-tijd/
  • https://werkgeverslijn.nl/ketenbepaling/
Unemployment protection

Although by law you are always covered for an unemployment situation, there are several scenarios to consider in order to benefit from it:

In case you quit, it’s most likely you are not entitled to get social benefits, there are exceptions around extreme cases as sickness, mobbing and so on.

When getting fired due to your own fault, you are not entitled for unemployment protection. In case you got fired with a made up excuse (illegal), consider fighting back.

When a company argues that they are firing you not due to your own fault (third party reasons as economic situation for instance) or the contract ends, then you are entitled to unemployment protection if you fit certain conditions. Those conditions are: you need to be able to work and in the last 36 weeks, you worked at least 26 weeks.

You can get up to 3 months in case of working a minimum of 26 weeks out of the last 36 weeks. In case of working at least 4 years out of the last 5 ones, you get at least a year of social coverage.

Schedule

Working times

A shift may not exceed 12 hours. A working week may last no more than 60 hours. When you make a week of 60 hours it should be compensated because you are not allowed to work more than 55 hours a week on average over in 4 weeks. After 16 weeks this number becomes an average of 48 hours.

Breaks

You are entitled to a mandatory 30 minute break for every 5 and a half hours you work. (You have to take this break!) If you work for more than 10 hours this becomes 45 minutes. This can be made up of three breaks of 15 minutes spread throughout the 10 hours. This break is not paid.

Extra hours

When it comes to extra hours (overtime work) you might find rules in your CAO, your contract or company rules. Apart from that, you cannot be forced to work overtime. You should only work when and for how much money and/or off days you want. There are rules about the maximum amount of work per day (including overtime): 12 hours per shift and 60 hours per week, 11 hours of rest after a shift and a 36 hour weekend. Special rules for minors and pregnancy. Bear in mind that there are many jobs with exceptions.

Useful links:

  • https://www.fnv.nl/werk-inkomen/werktijden/overwerk
  • https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/werktijden/vraag-en-antwoord/wettelijke-regels-werktijden-en-rusttijden
  • https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/werktijden/vraag-en-antwoord/brochures-arbeidstijdenwet-en-arbeidstijdenbesluit

Health & safety

Basic information

A boss is responsible for the health and safety of his/her workers. This means providing a safe working environment, safe tools and vehicles, proper instructions regarding safe operation of those tools and vehicles, and proper precautions for working with (potentially) hazardous substances.

Health insurance

Everyone how lives in NL should have private health insurance. It’s your duty to choose and sign contract with insurance company of your choice.

Most workers are entitled to zorgtoeslag from the government. This monthly allowance could save you up to half of your health insurance fee. You can apply for this through: http://www.toeslagen.nl.

Mobbing & Abuse

Never hand over any documentation, especially passport and work permit, to anyone. These are important personal possessions and in the hands of others they can be used to pressure you into doing things you don’t want to do.

In case you are facing mobbing, there are multiple factors to consider.

First of all find allies among your colleagues who feel the same. Together, make a list of demands and a plan of action. Think about how could things be improved for you in a practical way.

Then, you can choose to talk with your manager directly, to give them the chance to improve. If that doesnt work, or you dont feel safe doing this, you can go to the ‘Vertrouwenspersoon’ (‘trusted person’) or Ondernemingsraad (company council). These are official positions and it should be mentioned somewhere who this is. Lastly, go to Human Resources (personeelszaken) or a higher manager.

In all cases, be prepared to not get a satisfactory solution. Vetrouwenspersonen are only there to listen, they dont have power. Neither does the Ondernemingsraad. Human resources and other managers are usually not really interested in helping people, its not in their own interest and not what they get paid for. So dont expect too much from this and do not spend a lot of energy on the official process, because it will burn you out. Think about it beforehand: if I dont get what I want, what am I able and willing to do? When people team up, results have been made by direct actions like walk-outs and strikes. If this is what you want, contact us via e-mail.

If you dont get results, and you cant team up with colleagues, a good option is to call in sick due to stress related complaints, which you probably have. You can then hopefully relax a bit. If you have a normal (not agency) contract this also means you cannot be fired. READ YOUR CONTRACT FIRST! After two weeks you will be asked to go to an HR doctor where you can say what is causing you stress. You will make a plan of action to improve this and go back to work. You can of course stretch things for as long as possible while looking for a different job and enjoying the 70% sick pay.)

Useful links:

  • https://www.arboportaal.nl/onderwerpen/pesten/maatregelen

Background checks

A company most commonly demands a so called ‘VOG’ (‘Declaration of Conduct’). For some professions, it is mandatory. A government service called Justis looks if you have a criminal record with crimes that have been declared relevant for the job you want. The Declaration is then sent to your house address, not to the employer. You then give the result to the employer. If you dont get a positive Declaration of Conduct, it does NOT necessarily mean the employer can fire you. Do not accept this just like that, because they have to motivate this separately. For the VOG the government does only look at your personal criminal record, not that of your family.

There can also be a bigger investigation called an ‘Antecedentenonderzoek’ (background investigation). This is much broader and can include family. It is done by private investigators.

Useful links:

  • https://www.justis.nl/producten/vog/vog-aanvragen/naar-welke-gegevens-wordt-gekeken/screeningsprofielen.aspx
  • https://www.bvdv.nl/verklaring-omtrent-gedrag-vog-ontslag/
  • https://www.ondernemenmetpersoneel.nl/aannemen/werving-en-selectie/1212-antecedentenonderzoek-personeel-zo-werkt-het.html

Leaves

Unpaid leaves

Dutch law does not cover unpaid leaves, however some CAOs have clauses for this cases. If you are under a CAO, better check it. In any case, although not frequent, in some companies it’s possible to arrange a private deal with management for getting an unpaid leave. There are two cases covered by the dutch law: parental leave and taking care of a sick person, these cases are quite complex and in such cases better ask for professional legal advice.

Childbirth leaves

Pregnant employees are entitled to pregnancy and maternity leave for at least 16 weeks. You can take pregnancy leave from six weeks before the date the baby is due but it should start no later than four weeks before the baby is due. After giving birth you are always entitled to at least ten weeks of maternity leave, even if the baby is born later than it was due. During your leave, you will receive an allowance which matches your salary up to a maximum amount. After your partner has given birth, you are entitled to five days of paternity leave and and from july 2020 five weeks. This leave is paid.

Parental leave: You are entitled to parental leave when you have been working for the same employer for at least 1 year and are caring for a child who is younger than 8. Both parents are entitled to parental leave. If you have more children, you may take parental leave for each child separately. You are also entitled to parental leave for your adopted children, foster children or stepchildren, provided the child is living with you. You are entitled to parental leave up to 26 times your weekly working hours. The normal arrangement is that for six months, you work half of your normal hours. For example, if you work 32 hours per week, then for six months you will work 16 hours per week together while taking 16 hours parental leave per week. Parental leave is unpaid.

Vakantiegeld (holiday leave)

Holiday leave is calculated based on the 8% of your gross annual salary. Given that amount of money, you’ll need to pay taxes for it. The % paid for the holiday leave varies (in 2019) between 36,65% and 51,75%.

Sick leave

When you are physically or mentally (including stress or fear) unable to do your work, you are in most cases, entitled to sick pay. Depending on the type of contract you have the amount of sick pay can differ. Take into account that many contracts say you won’t get paid the first two days, these days are called wachtdagen.

Regarding sick leave: When you fall ill the boss is not allowed to ask the worker what is the cause of the illness. You are free to tell them if you wish, but they cannot make you tell them. We recommend not to enter into a discussion and let your boss follow the legal rules.

You have the right to keep your medical conditions it in secret and you are not oblied to report a medical leave to your employer. But a lot of companies have contract with third party companies, so called ‘Bedrijfsartsen’ (corporate doctors) that can ask you to prove that you are sick. Such companies can not share with your company what is you illness, they will just answer whether you are sick or not.

When facing a medical condition or illness, the Dutch law provides that during the first 104 weeks (2 years) of sickness/disability to work, the employee is entitled to a minimum of 70% of the wages. If this 70% turns out to be less than the statutory minimum wage, the employee is entitled to the statutory minimum wage. Always double check your CAO since it might sometimes provide a higher ratio/periods as well.

Only in extremely rare circumstances or after 2 years of sickness you can be fired while on a sick leave. In general under Dutch employment law, there is a prohibition against termination of employment during an employee’s sickness (in Dutch: ‘opzegverbod tijdens ziekte’). This is a very strict rule in the Netherlands and it is nearly impossible to deviate from it.

Economics

Payments

After your contract has finished, make sure you get all your back payment, including your holiday pay (around 8% of your gross monthly wage) and unused vacation days. Bear in mind that your last salary has to be payed within the normal term (maximum within one month). If there are other costs (‘eindafrekening’), they have to be payed within one month after the end of the contract.

Useful links:

  • https://www.loonvisie.nl/eindafrekening-bij-ontslag-of-vertrek-werknemer/
  • https://www.fnv.nl/werk-inkomen/salaris-loon/geen-salaris-of-salaris-te-laat

Taxes

Make sure you get the ‘jaaropgaaf’ from your boss, a statement of what you earned last year, so you can fill in your tax return. Most often this will already be filled in on the online tax form.Tax forms can be found at in the links section.

In case you move to another country and you want to ask for a tax refund contact to the belastingdienst asking for an early application of your taxes or just wait until the beginning of the next year and then you can ask for the refund. Bare in mind that the first year you do your taxes you’ll required to fill the ‘M’ form via paper instead of using the online website.

Understanding a payslip in the Netherlands can be a quest and many concepts that you will see in your payslip may sound klingon. A nice post that explains the main points of a payslip can be found in the links section

If you have a partial disability your taxes get affected, you can deduct some healthcare costs. Best consult the federation of people with your particular disability for advice. Search for ‘patientenvereniging’ or ‘belangenvereniging’ + dutch name of disability. A general one for people with chronic illnesses or disability is https://iederin.nl/

Useful links:

  • http://www.belastingdienst.nl/english/
  • http://www.belastingdienst.nl/deutsch/
  • https://www.iamexpat.nl/career/employment-news/dutch-pay-slip-how-your-salary-determined

Minimum salary

For workers between 23 and 67 years of age the legal minimum wage is €8,63 gross an hour based on a 40 hour work week. This is €69,01 for an 8 hour day, €345,05 per week and €1.495,20 gross per month. If you are not paid an hourly wage but instead receive ‘piece wage’, you should be able to earn at least this minimum wage while doing your work at a ‘normal’ pace.

Organize & fight back

How to get help

If you need to find a legal advisor you can try to get a lawyer from advocaten locket. The first consult for lawyers you find here, is always free and without obligations. The lawyer can help you request legal cost support. To be eligible for support you cannot have a high income or savings. With an income above € 27.300 euro (singles) or € 38.600 (others), or more than € 30.360 savings (2019, subject to change), you get no support at all. Less income/savings = more subsidy.

Useful links:

  • https://www.advocatenloket.nu/default.asp
  • https://www.rechtsbijstand.nl/over-mediation-en-rechtsbijstand/hoeveel-moet-ik-zelf-betalen/hoeveel-moet-ik-zelf-betalen

Tips for the working dynamics

Keep your own administration! Save pay slips, keep a roster of your working hours and save all information you get from your boss on paper or email. Also write down addresses and names of companies you are working for.

Establish contacts with your fellow workers from day one at a new job. Exchange phone numbers. Try to inform each other about issues at work. Build a feeling of solidarity. In case of conflict you’ll be stronger together than on your own.

Your work might be regulated by means of a collective labour agreement (CAO, Collectieve Arbeids Overeenkomst). If you are working through a temporary work agency, the Dutch temp agency CAO applies to you. Recent versions in English, Polish and Dutch you can find here: http://www.abu.nl/publicaties/cao

Reporting

You can report the employer to the government, but, most likely, it will not bring any results. (but nothing will happen except for maybe the most extreme situations). Another option you can combine is reporting to a union. (You should) Find out which union is active in your business. There is a big union called FNV

If problems at your company have major social or ethical impact, reporting those issues may require specific knowledge and actions. (you might be a whistleblower). You can contact https://www.huisvoorklokkenluiders.nl/ for advise and help. (however be very careful)

Since the moment you make a report, governmental institutions or unions will not be allowed to disclose you name to the employer. But there is always a chance that something can go wrong. (While normally they will take care to avoid this, the union or government could leak your name by accident.) If you are a whistleblower you should take more precautions. It’s important to take into consideration that it is a process involving a lot of patience and emotional strength. (Also you risk putting too much faith in the process of reporting and getting burned out.)

Useful links:

  • https://www.inspectieszw.nl/melden
  • https://www.fnv.nl/service-contact/arbo-adviespunt

Epiloque

This leaflet was published in September 2014. By the time you read it some information might be outdated. So always double check with more up-to-date information sources.

More information can also be found on the following website:

https://labourrights.vrijebond.org/

We are not an NGO, assistance or charity organization, we are anarchists and work under self-management and mutual support basics. If you are facing troubles at your workplace, do not hesitate to reach us, together we can fight back. If you have no problems at work (pax socialis) but you disagree with this capitalist society where you are worth what you own, also come by and meet us, united we are stronger and we can trouble back to those that exploit the human race.

Anarchistische Groep Amsterdam – Vrije Bond

aga@agamsterdam.org

http://agamsterdam.org

postbus 16521

1001 RA Amsterdam

Or pass by our library on Saturdays from 2 to 6 pm: Eerste Schinkelstraat 14-16, Amsterdam

There are many groups and people involved in the Vrije Bond in the Netherlands and in large parts of Belgium. Check the website for contact details: http://www.vrijebond.org/groepen/

Or write to the secretariat to get in contact with members in your vicinity:

secretariaat@vrijebond.nl

If any part of this document was in english is because we are missing some texts in the current language. If you want to collaborate finishing this translation, please visit http://167.71.69.177:8088/projects/aga/labour-rights/, there you’ll find a translation platform where you can submit your translations for the missing texts or you can suggest modifications/improvals over already existing text.